Competition for Water in United States Shale Energy Development

Ceres evaluated water use for 109,665 oil and gas wells that were hydraulically fractured over the past five years (January 2011 through January 2016) in regions with varying levels of water stress. Water stress is indicated by percentages that reflect the amount of available water that is already allocated for municipal, industrial and agricultural uses.

Competition for Water in United States Shale Energy Development

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Alex E

Ecoclimax is defined by Odum (1969) as the culmination state after a succession in a stabilized ecosystem in which maximum biomass (or high information content) and symbiotic function among organisms is kept per unit of available energy flow.