Where the oceans have been colder & hotter than average

Where the oceans have been colder & hotter than average


Record high annual mean surface temperatures (2015)
Record high annual mean surface temperatures (2015)
Since 1955, more than 90 percent of the excess heat retained by the Earth as a result of increased greenhouse gases has been absorbed by the oceans.


Estimated heat accumulation

Estimated heat accumulation

For several decades, more energy has been absorbed than emitted at the top of Earth’s atmosphere. According to Gregory Johnson, an oceanographer at NOAA, the rate of energy gained between 1971 and 2010 was roughly equal to the power required to run 140 billion 1,500-watt hair dryers over the same number of years. The rate has only increased in the past decade.

Via nytimes.com
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Alex E

Ecoclimax is defined by Odum (1969) as the culmination state after a succession in a stabilized ecosystem in which maximum biomass (or high information content) and symbiotic function among organisms is kept per unit of available energy flow.