Global Metropolitan Urban Area Footprints

Areas are drawn to reflect total urban built up area, including suburbs, and do not reflect municipal boundaries. Where one metropolitan region bleeds into another as part of a megaregion, as with New York and Tokyo, the area limits are drawn subjectively Populations are mean to reflect cities'metropolitan regions. Again, as with areas, results vary with sampling methods. All populations and areas below are approximate and intended for basic comparison purposes only.

Global Metropolitan Urban Area Footprints

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Alex E

Ecoclimax is defined by Odum (1969) as the culmination state after a succession in a stabilized ecosystem in which maximum biomass (or high information content) and symbiotic function among organisms is kept per unit of available energy flow.