Nine maps that explain the Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea almost wholly surrounded by land and united to the Atlantic Ocean. It comprises about 2.5 million square kilometers (970 thousand sq mi), but its connection to the Atlantic through the Strait of Gibraltar is only 14 kilometers (9 miles) wide.

Below the map compared the Mediterranean Sea to North America.

Map of Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1.5 kilometers (0.9 miles), and the deepest recorded point is 5,3 kilometer (3,3 miles) in the Calypso Deep positioned in the Hellenic Trench (Ionian Sea).

Dippest point of the Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea was the highway of transportation for merchants and travelers of ancient times, facilitating trade and cultural interchange connecting peoples consolidating three continents: Southern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa.

Below the map of the expansion of European olive over the Mediterranean Basin.

Map of spread olive trees

An early Semitic speaking civilization, the Phoenicians would come to develop the first cases of thalassocracy, colonization, and city-states. Starting from the area we today call Lebanon in the Levant, the Phoenicians relied on maritime trade. Made possible by the famous Lebanese cedar tree timber. As a crossroads between the Egyptians, Hittites, and Mesopotamians they used their knowledge of sail to introduce many various goods into the ancient Mediterranean. Wares such as wine, glass, and chased metalwork.
The Phoenician influences on the Mediterranean
Their possibly greatest legacy would be their influence on Rome. Due to their impact on the Greeks and Etruscans which the Roman culture was deeply based upon.

Trade routes and principal products in each region
The Roman Empire dominated the Mediterranean region for many centuries.
 The history of the Mediterranean region is necessary for explaining the origins and evolution of many modern societies.
Food of the Mediterranean

Now 21 nations encircling the Mediterranean sea, 285 cities of more than 100 thousand inhabitants located in the Mediterranean region, 18 of which have a population of more than one million. All Mediterranean cities represent more than 126 million residents.

Cities of the Mediterranean Sea
Geological data reveals that about 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was separated off from the Atlantic ocean and was drained over some 0.6 million years before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. One hundred years ago, there was a plan for dams building (‘Atlantropa’), which would have led to the lowering of the sea-level of the Mediterranean Sea by 200 meters (660 ft), opening up vast new territories for settlements.
Map of the land that would have surfaced had Atlantropa project happened


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