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Showing posts from January, 2019

Countries scaled by total CO2 emissions (1971 - 2014)

The area of the country is total CO2 per country. The color is tonnes per person in that country. Reddit user: neilrkaye The United Kingdom managed to almost halve their emissions from 1971 to 2014, while the United States only reduced theirs by 25 percent.

World maps showing number of years since it was a "record hottest year" and "record coldest year"

The map below showing the most of the hottest records were not so many years ago. While coldest records are in full opposite.  Just for example in Moscow hottest year ever was in 2010. While coldest year ever was kinda 70-80 years ago.

Global temperature from 1850 to 2018 compared to pre-industrial values

Reddit user: neilrkaye The Earth's average temperature has been increasing since the Industrial Revolution. Between 1880 and 2015, average global surface temperatures rose by 0.8°C. In 2018, the Earth experienced its fourth consecutive hottest year since recordkeeping began. There is broad consensus in the scientific community that this warming has been largely driven by increases in atmospheric GHGs, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CHj), and nitrous oxide (N2O). GHG emissions have been growing since the Industrial Revolution and were 60% higher in 2014 than they were in 1990. Since 1880, atmospheric CCbeq concentrations have risen from around 290 ppm to 412.60 ppm. Another excellent visualization of average global temperature from 1860 to 2021 compared to pre-industrial values created by Reddit user neilrkaye. Global warming at different latitudes The x-axis is a range of temperatures compared to 1961-1990 between years shown at that latitude. Reddit user: neilr

The Bee Nest's Defensive Mechanism

Many football fans, launching a wave in the stadiums, do not know that some insects can do it more effectively without having a developed brain. The 'wave' below is utilized against wasps and is referred to as 'shimmering' behavior or defense waving. Bees ( Apis Dorsata ) in the outer layer thrust their abdomens 90° in an upward direction and shake them in a synchronous way. This may be accompanied by stroking of the wings. The signal is transmitted to nearby workers that also adopt the posture, thus creating a visible, and audible 'ripple' effect across the face of the comb. These wave-like patterns repel wasps that get too close to the nests of these bees and serve to confuse the wasp. In turn, the wasp cannot fixate on capturing one bee or getting food from the bees’ nest so the wasp will seek to find easier prey and leave this nest alone.

Wing Shapes

Source: Active Soaring Wings Long and narrow. Excellent for soaring (flying without flapping) over water as long as wind currents are favorable. Passive Soaring Wings Long and broad wings ending in long primary feathers with wide gaps in between. These slots help the bird take advantage of columns of rising hot air, allowing it to soar without reliable wind currents. Elliptical Wings Optimized for bursts of fast, tightly controlled flight. Excellent at taking off quickly, maneuvering through branches, and avoiding predators. Ordinary flight is slow and usually requires flapping. High-Speed Wings Medium-long and narrow, optimized for sustained speed. Hovering Wings Small relative to body size. Excellent for tightly controlled flight and hovering. Articulates mostly at the shoulder rather than the wrist.

Temperature deviation in Switzerland (1864 - 2018)

2018 is the warmest year on record.  Data:  Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss

The 100th Meridian has shifted 140 miles east

The iconic “100th Meridian” (The Line of Aridity), the North American climate boundary that visibly separates the humid eastern part of the continent from the more arid western plains, has shifted 140 miles east since 1980. Source:  Source: Af - Tropical rainforest climate, Am - Tropical monsoon climate, Aw - Tropical savanna climate, BSh - Hot semi-arid climates, BSk - Cold semi-arid climates, BWh - Hot desert climates, BWk - Cold desert climates, Cfa - Humid subtropical climate, Cfb - Oceanic climate, Cfc - Subpolar oceanic climate, Csa - Hot-summer Mediterranean climate, Csb - Warm-summer Mediterranean climate, Cwa - Humid subtropical climate, Cwb - Subtropical highland oceanic climate, Dfa - Hot humid continental climate, Dfb - Warm humid continental climate, Dfc - Subarctic climate, Dfd - Subarctic climate, Dsa - Hot humid continental climate, Dsb - Warm humid continental climate, Dsc - Subarctic climate, Dwa - Humid cont

A timeline of Earth's average temperature since the last Ice Age glaciation

When people say "the climate has changed before", these are the kinds of changes they're talking about.

Kilograms per Capita of Plastic Waste in Europe

Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which easily can be shaped into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. Not surprisingly, production and consumption of plastics have increased significantly over the last 60 years (Hopewell et al., 2009). As a result, a waste plastic generation has grown significantly over the last decades. 300 million tonnes of plastics are produced globally every year, with production expected to double in the next 20 years. By 2050, the plastics industry could account for 15 percent of the global carbon budget. Europe’s total demand for plastic has risen to 49 million tonnes per year, of which 40 percent is used for packaging. The majority of this plastic packaging is used only once, with 95 percent of its value lost to the economy after this first use, a loss with an estimated value of EUR 100 billion globally. Approximately 42% of the plastics produced globally since 1950 have been used for packaging,