The map below shows how the terrain may have appeared during the Last Glacial Maximum, around 21 thousand years ago, when sea levels were approximately 125 meters below present.


Sahul (Australia)
Sahul (Australia)


Sundaland (Southeastern Asia)
Sundaland (Southeastern Asia)


East Asia
East Asia



Via v7x
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Alex E

Ecoclimax is defined by Odum (1969) as the culmination state after a succession in a stabilized ecosystem in which maximum biomass (or high information content) and symbiotic function among organisms is kept per unit of available energy flow.