Livestock supply chains emitted an estimated total of 7.1 million tonnes CO2-eq in 2005. This represents 14.5 percent of all human induced GHG emissions (IPCC, 2007). Methane (CH4) accounts for about 44 percent of the total. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) represent almost equal shares with 29 and 27 percent, respectively.
Cattle are the main contributor to the sector's emissions with about 4.6 million tonnes CO2
which represents about 65 percent of sector's emissions. Beef and dairy
cattle generate similar amounts of greenhouse gases. Pigs, poultry,
buffaloes and small ruminants have much lower emissions, representing
between 7 and 10 percent of sector's emissions.
Beef meat is the commodity with highest emission intensity, with an average of 342 kg CO2
per kg of protein. Meat and milk from small ruminants present the
second and third highest emission intensities among commodities with
averages of 165 and 112 kg CO2
-eq per kg of protein. Cattle milk, chicken meat and eggs and pork have lower emission intensities, all below 100 kg CO2
-eq per kg of protein
Feed production accounts for almost 47 percent of total sector's emissions, with over 3.3 million tonnes CO2
-eq. Enteric fermentation is the second largest source of emissions, with 2.7 million tonnes CO2
or about 40 percent of total emissions. Manure management is
responsible for about 10 percent of the total, or 0.7 million tonnes CO2
-eq. Energy consumption, both on-farm and postfarm, account for 0.3 million tonnes CO2
-eq, or nearly 5 percent of the total.
Latin America and the Caribbean have the highest level of emissions, with 1.7 million CO2
East and Southeast Asia, with about 14 million tonnes of protein, is the region with the highest production