Which Energy Source is the Safest?

Which Energy Source is the Safest?

Energy use is a necessity in the modern economy, but the practices of extracting and using energy also create a deadly trade-off.

Even including Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents, nuclear is the safest power source per TWh (90 deaths per 1,000 TWh).

There are still some deaths attributable to renewables such as accidents and via lifecycle analysis, but they are among the safest forms of energy on earth (Solar: 440 deaths per 1,000 TWh, Wind: 150 deaths per 1,000 TWh).

Hydro is normally very safe, but it has one extreme outlier that skews the data (1400 deaths per 1,000 TWh).
In 1975 the Banqiao Dam in China collapsed during a typhoon, killing 171,000 people.

When the human and environmental costs of coal are added up. It's the biggest killer of any energy source by far. Air pollution alone in China kills over 4,400 people per day (Coal: 100,000 deaths per 1,000 TWh; Oil: 36,000 deaths per 1,000 TWh; Gas: 4,000 deaths per 1,000 TWh).
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Ecoclimax is defined by Odum (1969) as the culmination state after a succession in a stabilized ecosystem in which maximum biomass (or high information content) and symbiotic function among organisms is kept per unit of available energy flow.