Monthly Mean Sea Ice Concentration Anomalies (1981 - 2015)

The maps and bar graphs below show how the Arctic Ocean sea ice cover for different years and months compares to averages from 1979 to 2015. The maps show spatial patterns of the differences (anomalies) of sea ice concentration for each year and month. Sea ice concentration is the fraction of the ocean covered by sea ice and is expressed as a percentage. The bar graphs show anomalies of sea ice extent for the Northern Hemisphere as a whole. Sea ice extent represents all areas with at least a 15% ice concentration. The bar graphs of sea ice extent and the maps of ice concentration anomalies are based on the same data as used in the NSIDC Sea Ice Index.

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Ecoclimax is defined by Odum (1969) as the culmination state after a succession in a stabilized ecosystem in which maximum biomass (or high information content) and symbiotic function among organisms is kept per unit of available energy flow.