Skip to main content

Phylogenetic signal as a predictor of extinction risk in the world’s primates

Nonhuman primates, our closest biological relatives, play important roles in the livelihoods, cultures, and religions of many societies and offer unique insights into human evolution, biology, behavior, and the threat of emerging diseases. They are an essential component of tropical biodiversity, contributing to forest regeneration and ecosystem health. Current information shows the existence of 504 species in 79 genera distributed in the Neotropics, mainland Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. Alarmingly, ~60% of primate species are now threatened with extinction and ~75% have declining populations. This situation is the result of escalating anthropogenic pressures on primates and their habitats—mainly global and local market demands, leading to extensive habitat loss through the expansion of industrial agriculture, large-scale cattle ranching, logging, oil and gas drilling, mining, dam building, and the construction of new road networks in primate range regions. Other important drivers are increased bushmeat hunting and the illegal trade of primates as pets and primate body parts, along with emerging threats, such as climate change and anthroponotic diseases. Often, these pressures act in synergy, exacerbating primate population declines. Given that primate range regions overlap extensively with a large, and rapidly growing, human population characterized by high levels of poverty, global attention is needed immediately to reverse the looming risk of primate extinctions and to attend to local human needs in sustainable ways. Raising global scientific and public awareness of the plight of the world’s primates and the costs of their loss to ecosystem health and human society is imperative.

Distribution of threat values (IUCN Red List categories) for 340 primate species. Representative genera labeled. After taxonomic updates, our working phylogeny included 350 of the 367 species considered in the molecular supertree (73), of which 340 are not Data Deficient. Closely related species are more likely to have the same threat status than species taken randomly from the phylogeny [D = 0.31; P (D < 1) < 0.001], supporting a strong phylogenetic signal (see Supplementary Text for details of methodology). Data for Africa include Madagascar. IUCN Red List Categories: CR (Critically Endangered), EN (Endangered), VU (Vulnerable), NT (Near Threatened), and LC (Least Concern).

Global patterns of forecasted agricultural expansion for the 21st century in primate range regions and estimated range contraction.(A) Estimated current global primate distributions. (B) The predicted 21st century expansion of agriculture estimates a spatial overlap with about 75% of primate species habitat worldwide. Red areas indicate higher spatial overlap between agricultural expansion and primate habitat. Blue areas indicate limited spatial conflict. Agricultural expansion represents a synthesis of the expected increase in the location and area devoted to agricultural production, according to the land-cover map produced by the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment and potential productivity obtained from the Global Agro-Ecological Zones (Supplementary Text) (13). (C) Estimated range contraction in primate distributions by the end of the 21st century under a worst-case scenario of agricultural expansion.


This post may contain affiliate links. As an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases.

Popular posts from this blog

Find cities with similar climate

This map has been created using The Global environmental stratification. The Global environmental stratification (GEnS), based on statistical clustering of bioclimate data (WorldClim). GEnS, consists of 125 strata, which have been aggregated into 18 global environmental zones (labeled A to R) based on the dendrogram. Interactive map >> Via Related posts: -  Find cities with similar climate 2050 -  How global warming will impact 6000+ cities around the world?

Map of Fox Species Distribution

Foxes are small to medium-sized members of the Canidae family, which also includes wolves, dogs, and other related animals. There are about 37 species of foxes distributed around the world, and they inhabit a wide range of environments, from forests and grasslands to deserts and urban areas. Below is the map of fox species distribution  created by Reddit user isaacSW Here are some of the most well-known fox species and their distribution: Red Fox ( Vulpes vulpes ): The red fox is one of the most widely distributed fox species and is found in North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of North Africa. They are adaptable and can live in a variety of habitats, including forests, grasslands, and urban areas. Arctic Fox ( Vulpes lagopus ): The Arctic fox is found in the Arctic regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. They have adaptations that help them survive in cold climates, such as a thick coat that changes color with the seasons. Gray Fox ( Urocyon cinereoargenteus ): The gray fox

Moose population in North America

The moose ( Alces alces ) is the largest member of the deer family, characterized by its massive size, long legs, and distinctive broad, palmate antlers found in males. They have a dark brown or black coat and a humped shoulder. Moose are primarily found in the boreal and mixed deciduous forests of North America, Europe, and Asia. They are solitary animals, often found near bodies of water, and are herbivores that feed on leaves, bark, twigs, and aquatic vegetation. Despite their size, moose are strong swimmers and can run up to 35 miles per hour. The moose population in North America is shrinking swiftly. This decrease has been correlated to the opening of roadways and landscapes into this animal's north range.   In North America, the moose range includes almost all of Canada and Alaska, the northern part of New England and New York, the upper Rocky Mountains, northern Minnesota and Wisconsin, Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and Isle Royale.    In 2014-2015, the North American moo