Environmental Vulnerability Index
The Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) is a measurement devised by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC), the United Nations Environment Program and others to characterize the relative severity of various types of environmental issues suffered by 243 enumerated individual nations and other geographies. The results of the EVI are used to focus on planned solutions to negative pressures on the environment, whilst promoting sustainability.
The vulnerability scores for each indicator are then accumulated either into categories or sub-indices and the average calculated. An overall average of all indicators is calculated to generate the country EVI. The EVI is accumulated into three sub-indices: Hazards, Resistance, Damage.The 50 EVI indicators are also divided up in the issue categories for use as required: Climate change, Biodiversity, Water, Agriculture and fisheries,Human health aspects, Desertification, and Exposure to Natural Disasters.
1.High Winds - Average annual excess winds over the last five years averaged over all reference climate stations.
2.Dry Periods - Average annual rainfall deficit (mm) over the past 5 years for all months with more than 20% lower rainfall than the 30 year monthly average, averaged over all reference climate stations.
3.Wet Periods - Average annual excess rainfall (mm) over the past 5 years for all months with more than 20% higher rainfall than the 30 year monthly average, averaged over all reference climate stations
4.Hot Periods - Average annual excess heat (degrees) over the past 5 years for all days more than 5°C (9°F) hotter than the 30 year mean monthly maximum, averaged over all reference climate stations.
5.Cold Periods - Average annual heat deficit (degrees) over the past 5 years for all days more than 5°C (9°F) cooler than the 30 year mean monthly minimum, averaged overall reference climate stations.
6.Sea Temperatures -Average annual deviation in Sea Surface Temperatures(SST) in the last 5 years in relation to the 30 year monthly means
7.Volcanoes - Cumulative volcano risk as the weighted number of volcanoes with the potential for eruption greater than or equal to a Volcanic Explosively Index of 2 within 100km of the country.
8.Earthquakes- Cumulative earthquake energy within 100km of country land boundaries measured as Local Magnitude (ML) ≥ 6.0 and occurring at a depth of less than or equal to fifteen kilometers over 5 years.
9.Tsunamis - Number of tsunamis or storms surges with run-up greater than 2 meters above Mean High Water Spring tide (MHWS) per 1000 km coastline since 1900.
10.Slides-Number of slides recorded in the last 5 years ,divided by land area
11.Land Area - Total land area.
12.Country Dispersion -Ratio of length of borders to total land area.
13.Isolation - Distance to nearest continent.
14.Relief - Altitude range.
15.Lowlands - Percentage of land area less than or equal to 50m above sea level
16.Borders - Number of land and sea borders.
17.Ecosystem Imbalance - Weighted average change in trophic level since fisheries began .
18.Environmental Openness - Average annual USD freight imports over the past 5 years by any means per km2 land area
19.Migrations - Number of known species that migrate outside the territorial area at any time during their life spans/ area of land.
20.Endemics - Number of known endemic species per million square kilometer land area
21.Introductions - Number of introduced species per 1000 square kilometer of land area
22.Endangered Species - Number of endangered and vulnerable species per 1000 km2 land area.
23.Extinctions -Number of species known to have become extinct since 1900 per 1000 km2 land area.
24.Vegetation Cover-Percentage of natural and regrowth vegetation cover remaining.
25.Loss Of Cover - Net percentage change in natural vegetation cover over the last five years
26.Habitat Fragmentation - Total length of all roads in a country divided by land area.
27.Degradation - Percent of land area that is either severely or very severely degraded.
28.Terrestrial Reserves - Percent of terrestrial land area legally set aside as no take reserves
29.Marine Reserves - Percentage of continental shelf legally designated as marine protected areas.
30.Intensive Farming - Annual tonnage of intensively farmed animal products produced over the last five years per square kilometer land area.
31.Fertilizers - Average annual intensity of fertilizer use over the total land area over the last 5 years.
32.Pesticides - Average annual pesticides used as kg/km2/year over total land area over last 5 years.
33.Biotechnology - Cumulative number of deliberate field trials of genetically modified organisms conducted in the country since 1986.
34.Productivity Over-fishing -Average ratio of productivity : fisheries catch over the last 5 years
35.Fishing Effort - Average annual number of fishers per kilometer of coastline over the last 5 years
36.Renewable Water - Average annual water usage as percentage of renewable water resources over the last 5 years
37.SO2 Emissions - Average annual SO2 emissions over the last 5 years.