References

Ferreira da Silva, A. M. (2006). On why and how do rivers meander.

Howard, A. D. (2009). How to make a meandering river. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(41), 17245-17246.http://www.pnas.org/content/106/41/17...

Howard, A. D., & Knutson, T. R. (1984). Sufficient conditions for river meandering: A simulation approach. Water Resources Research, 20(11), 1659-1667. http://erode.evsc.virginia.edu/papers...

Leopold, L. B., & Wolman, M. G. (1960). River meanders. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 71(6), 769-793.https://www.usu.edu/jackschmidt/files...

Parker, H. (1996). River Meandering as Self-Organization Process. Science,271, 1710. http://www.f052.it/watch/927/meanderi...

Rhoads, B. L., & Welford, M. R. (1991). Initiation of river meandering. Progress in Physical Geography, 15(2), 127-156.http://www.geog.illinois.edu/~brhoads...

Schwenk, Jon. Interview. 9 July 2014.

Seminara, G. (2006). Meanders. Journal of fluid mechanics, 554, 271-297. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/...

Stølum, H. H. (1998). Planform geometry and dynamics of meandering rivers.Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110(11), 1485-1498.http://bruche.u-strasbg.fr/pages_prot...

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Video and Image Credits

Waterfalls Cascading - Courtesy Shutterstock
http://www.shutterstock.com/video/cli...

Rio cauto Cuba - Public Domain Photo
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil...

Tiger Leaping Gorge - Courtesy Shutterstock
http://www.shutterstock.com/video/cli...

River coming from mountain - Google Earth
42°21'35.72" S 173°34'30.41" E

Meandering River - Google Earth Engine
https://earthengine.google.org/

Under Water 2 - Ken Mankoff
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fKMae...

Oxbow Lake Australia - GoogleEarth
23°41'31.06" S 150°47'53.91" E

Oxbow Lake Colombia - GoogleEarth
3°20'18.70" N  70°07'10.92" O

Oxbow Lake France - Google Earth
46°55'24.16" N   5°19'28.34" E

Dry Oxbow Lake Colorado - Google Earth
32°00'06.80" N 115°07'19.81" O

Martian Rivers on Aeolis Planum - NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/PSP_006...

Mars Rover Curiosity - Public Domain Image
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fil...
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Alex E

Ecoclimax is defined by Odum (1969) as the culmination state after a succession in a stabilized ecosystem in which maximum biomass (or high information content) and symbiotic function among organisms is kept per unit of available energy flow.