Every day Mumbai produces enough sewage to fill 4,500 Olympic-size swimming pools. Despite the many modern comforts of Mumbai, the sewer system is outdated and is still cleaned by hand. At least once a year the manhole covers are removed and a worker is lowered down with only a helmet for protection. The worker then scoops out the sludge consisting of both human and industrial waste that has been collecting in the pipes. It is not uncommon for Indian sewer workers to become ill or die from the toxic fumes. Indian Parliament recently passed a law in an effort to improve these poor working conditions, but many are doubtful that the new measures will make a difference.

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Alex E

Ecoclimax is defined by Odum (1969) as the culmination state after a succession in a stabilized ecosystem in which maximum biomass (or high information content) and symbiotic function among organisms is kept per unit of available energy flow.