Many of our aquatic invasive species issues are a result of ballast water which is caused by ocean going ships. It's a difficult issue for the shipping industry because currently this is the only way for cargo ships to operate.

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Alex E

Ecoclimax is defined by Odum (1969) as the culmination state after a succession in a stabilized ecosystem in which maximum biomass (or high information content) and symbiotic function among organisms is kept per unit of available energy flow.