Underground greenhouse

Walipini, or underground greenhouse is an incredibly effective way to grow food year round in climates subject to below freezing temps. The sun's light and heat comes through the plastic roof and is trapped inside, heating up the walls and keeping it warm (above about 50 deg) all night. The other advantage is the protection from wind as there are no external walls.

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Ecoclimax is defined by Odum (1969) as the culmination state after a succession in a stabilized ecosystem in which maximum biomass (or high information content) and symbiotic function among organisms is kept per unit of available energy flow.